• Christophobia - “the irrational fear or hatred of Christianity or Christians” -

  • Christophobia - “Hostility to Christians and their Christian faith that results in targeted killing, acts of violence against Christians, their property or religious sites. This includes murder, kidnapping, sexual violence, torture, forced conversions, improper imprisonment of individuals or groups, destruction of homes or places of worship, partly or wholly due to their Christian faith”. Premier white paper on Christophobia available via

  • Christianophobia - the plight of 200 million Christians worldwide who are “socially disadvantaged, harassed or actively oppressed for their beliefs” at the bottom of “a questionable hierarchy of victimhood”. Rupert Shortt, ‘Christianophobia’, 2012

  • Westophobia/Christophobia - the mirror image of Islamophobia. Gerry Redman, 'The Westophobia Report Update 2010' in Azumah & Riddell, 2013 (see below)

  • Occidentalism - An idea mirroring the ‘orientalism’ made famous by Edward Said. “The term Occidentalism refers primarily to the many ways in which non-Western intellectuals, artists, and the general public perceive and present the West. Though it seems to be an inversion of Orientalism, it has acquired some unique aspects defying a simple definition”.

Christian Responses

  • 'The Westophobia Report Update 2010', - Gerry Redman. 2013. in Azumah, J. & P. Riddell (eds.) Islam and Christianity on the Edge: talking points in Christian-Muslim relations into the 21st century: Acorn Press), 127-145

    • An update of one of the first reports on this subject ….

  • 'The Westophobia Report: anti-western and anti-Christian stereotyping in British Muslim publications' - Centre for Islamic Studies. 1999. London Bible College, CIS Occasional Papers, No.1.

    • Uses the “grid” developed by Runnymede to define Islamophobia and develops the mirror image - The West/Christianity is seen as … “monolithic, separate, inferior, an enemy, insincere and manipulative”. Western/Christian “criticism of Islam is rejected”, “discrimination against Christians defended” and “Westophobia/Christophobia are seen as natural”.

  • 'We need to tackle BOTH Muslimophobia AND Christianophobia', Barnabas Fund. 2017.

    • A short article celebrating religious freedom in Britain and repudiating the extreme nationalism of right parties such as Britain First.

Books, Reports and Articles

  • Bishop of Truro’s Independent Review for the Foreign Secretary of FCO Support for Persecuted Christians, Interim Report. 2019

  • Christianophobia: a faith under attack - Rupert Shortt. 2012. (Rider Books)

  • 'Christianophobia' - Rupert Shortt. 2012. (London: Civitas: Institute for the Study of Civil Society)

    • In both the book and the report, Shortt, editor of The Times Literary Supplement, looks at the persecution of Christians in over a dozen countries around the world in both Muslim and non-Muslim contexts.

  • The Global War on Christians in the Muslim World’ - Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Newsweek, Feb 13, 2012, Vol.159(7)

    • Hirsi Ali believes that “Christians are being killed in the Islamic world because of their religion” which she describes as £a rising genocide that ought to provoke global alarm”.

  • '"Christophobia" and the West', Kenneth Minogue. 2003. The New Criterion, 21/10: 4

    • Minogue uses the term ‘Christophobia’ to refer to “the rising hatred of Christianity among Western peoples” and discusses the secular context.


  • Premier - The Stop Campaign - “The UK Foreign Secretary, Jeremy Hunt, has announced a review into how the UK Government supports and treats persecuted Christians worldwide and has invited the UK Christian community to respond. This campaign allows you to make your feelings known easily alongside thousands of others, so we won’t be ignored!”

  • See hashtags on Twitter such as #Christianophobia #Christophobia #Westophobia