Media and Islamophobia
The following resources are linked with “-phobia” terms. They are not an exhaustive listing relating to the persecution and suffering of Muslims worldwide.
The definition of Islamophobia is controversial and widely debated. Here are some of the most prominent definitions:
Islamophobia is “dread or hatred of Islam - and, therefore, fear or dislike of all or most Muslims” Runnymede Trust. 1997. 'Islamophobia: a challenge to us all' (London: Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia), 1. The report then presented a grid which suggested that “closed” views of Islam see it as … “monolithic, separate, inferior, an enemy, and manipulative”. Muslim “criticism of the West is rejected”, “hostility towards Islam is justified” and “anti-Muslim hostility is accepted as natural”.
Islamophobia is defined as: a prejudice, aversion, hostility, or hatred towards Muslims and encompasses any distinction, exclusion, restriction, discrimination, or preference against Muslims that has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life”. MEND report. 2018. ‘More than Words: approaching a definition of Islamophobia'
“Islamophobia is an ideology, similar in theory, function and purpose to racism and other similar phenomena, that sustains and perpetuates negatively evaluated meaning about Muslims and Islam in the contemporary setting”. Allen, Chris. 2010. Islamophobia (Farnham: Ashgate), 190. Click here for the very long unabridged version.
“Islamophobia is a certain perception of Muslims, which may be expressed as hatred toward Muslims. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of Islamophobia are directed toward Muslim or non-Muslim individuals and/or their property, toward Muslim community institutions and religious facilities”. Allen, Chris. 2017. 'Towards a Working Definition of Islamophobia: A Briefing Paper' (Birmingham: School of Social Policy, College of Social Sciences, University of Birmingham)
(short) “Islamophobia is anti-Muslim racism”. ….. (long) “Islamophobia is any distinction, exclusion, or restriction towards, or preference against, Muslims (or those perceived to be Muslims) that has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life”. Farah Elahi & Omar Khan. 2017. 'Islamophobia: still a challenge for us all' (Runnymede Trust). A report produced on the 20th anniversary of the first Runnymede Trust report above.
“Islamophobia is rooted in racism and is a type of racism that targets expressions of Muslimness or perceived Muslimness.” All Party Parliamentary Group on British Muslims. 2018. 'Islamophobia Defined: the inquiry into a working definition of Islamophobia'
Orientalism - “Western ideas about the Middle East and about East and Southeast Asia, especially ideas that are too simple or not accurate about these societies being mysterious, never changing, or not able to develop in a modern way without Western help” Cambridge Dictionary
Responses to Definitions and Usage
Defining Islamophobia' - John Jenkins. 2018. (Policy Exchange) - a negative review of the APPG definition
‘Islamophobia: Crippling Counter-Terrorism’ - Richard Walton & Tom Wilson. 2019. (Policy Exchange) - expresses concern that the new definition would compromise security
‘Why UK’s working definition of Islamophobia as a ‘type of racism’ is a historic step’, Chris Allen. 2018. (The Conversation) - a positive review of the APPG definition
‘Islamophobia – what's in a name?’ - Chris Allen. 2011 - a response to Quilliam
'What is Islamophobia?', Tim Dieppe. 2019. (Christian Concern) - a negative review of the APPG definition from a Christian perspective
'Islamophobia and Extremism', Tim Dieppe. 2017. (Christian Concern)
Islamophobia is “an unreasonable fear of all Muslims, without taking into account their beliefs, their direction in life and what tradition of Islam they come from. It is very important to distinguish that from a reasonable fear, for example, of people who are committed to terrorism to achieve their aims" Michael Nazir-Ali. 2002. Understanding My Muslim Neighbour: Questions and Answers on Islam and Its Followers (Norwich: Canterbury Press ), 72
‘Bible Prophecy, and Islamophobia: Rhetoric and Reality in the Narratives of Walid Shoebat, Kamal Saleem, Ergun and Emir Caner', Christopher Smith. 2014. Islamophobia Studies Journal, 2/2: 76-93
'Fear Under Construction: Islamophobia Within American Christian Zionism', Steven Fink. 2014. Islamophobia Studies Journal, 2/1: 26-43
‘The word Islamophobia should be abandoned’, political activist Mohammed Amin discusses various definitions and argues that use of the word harms Muslims.
‘Islamophobia or Anti-Muslim Hatred?’, Quilliam Foundation - an article critical of the use of the term Islamophobia from a Muslim point of view
‘Want to Stop Islamophobia? Talk To Your Fellow Christians’ - Najeeba Sayeed in Sojourners Magazine, 2018
Campaigns & Projects
Tell MAMA - “We are an independent, non-governmental organisation which works on tackling anti-Muslim hatred and therefore our work is not influenced or wholly shaped by Government. However, we work with Central Government to raise the issues of anti-Muslim hatred at a policy level and our work helps to shape and inform policy makers, whilst ensuring that an insight is brought into this area of work through the systematic recording and reporting of anti-Muslim hate incidents and crimes”.
‘One man’s (very polite) fight against media Islamophobia’ - Guardian piece on Miqdaad Versi’s campaign against media misreporting
Islamophobia Awareness Month - highlights the menace of anti-Muslim hate crime and showcases positive contributions of Muslims. Islamophobia Awareness Month (IAM) was co-founded by MEND with other British organisations in 2012 to deconstruct and challenge the stereotypes about Islam and Muslims.
Network Against Islamophobia - a project of Jewish Voice for Peace, was created to serve as a resource to groups interested in organizing against Islamophobia and anti-Arab racism and to be a partner to the broader, Muslim-led movement against Islamophobia. NAI facilitates online resource-sharing of FAQs, public letters, press statements, articles, and other materials.
Counter-Islamophobia Kit - a two-year project funded by the European Commission at the University of Leeds in association with other European universities looking at normative patterns of Islamophobia and effective counter-narratives to anti-Muslim hatred.
Islamophobia Research and Documentation Project (IRDP) - a systematic and empirical approach to the study of Islamophobia and its impact on the American Muslim community at the Center for Race & Gender, Berkeley, University of California. The centre also hosts the Islamophobia Studies Journal (ISJ).
See hashtags on Twitter such as #Islamophobia #AntiMuslim
Beyond the Incident: outcomes for victims of anti-Muslim prejudice, 2017 report from Tell MAMA. Other reports also available.
European Islamophobia Report (EIR), an annual report produced by the Turkey-based Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research (SETA). Read 2017 Report.
The Missing Muslims: Unlocking British Muslim Potential for the Benefit of All, 2017 report by the Citizens Commission on Islam, Participation and Public Life.
‘Muslims in the European Union: Discrimination and Islamophobia’ - 2006 report from the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (later part of EUFRA)
Books and Articles
Allen, Chris. 2010. Islamophobia (Farnham: Ashgate)
Cheng, Jennifer. 2015. 'Islamophobia, Muslimophobia or racism? Parliamentary discourses on Islam and Muslims in debates on the minaret ban in Switzerland', Discourse & Society, 26/5: 562-586
Helbling, Marc (ed.). 2012. Islamophobia in the West: Measuring and Explaining Individual Attitudes (Routledge)
Ibn Warraq. 2007. Defending the West: a critique of Edward Said's Orientalism (Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books)
Lean, Nathan. 2017. The Islamophobia Industry: how the right manufactures fear of Muslims (London: Pluto Press)
Said, Edward. 1978. Orientalism (London: Routledge & Kegan)
Said, Edward. 1985. 'Orientalism Reconsidered', Cultural Critique, 1: 89-107
Sayyid, S. & AbdoolKarim Vakil. 2010. Thinking through Islamophobia: global perspectives (London: Hurst & Company)