Islam and Muslim-Christian Relations in North Africa

The nature of the subject dictates that this bibliography is dominated by books about relations between Muslim Egyptians and Copts in Egypt, and French Catholics and Muslim Algerians in Algeria, as these are the only countries in North Africa where in modern times large numbers of Muslims and Christians have coexisted in the same territory. The only other places in this region are Spain and Sicily in the Middle Ages.

Abi-Mershed, Osama. “Uncivil War: Intellectuals and Identity Politics During the Decolonization of Algeria,” Journal of Islam and Muslim Christian Relations 14.2, 2003.

Anderson, Gerald H., Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions, New York, Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Brooks, L.A.E., A Memoir of Sir John Drummond Hay, London, John Murray Albemarle Street, 1896.

[John Drummond Hay was British ambassador to Morocco for a period of about 50 years in the second half of the 19th century. This biography gives a vivid account of the difficulties besetting relations between Muslims and Christians in North Africa in the age of empire.]

Daniel, Robin, This Holy Seed: Faith, Hope and Love in the Early Churches of North Africa, UK, Tamarisk, 1993.

[A good introduction to the historical context of the modern church in North Africa. It contains a helpful bibliography of sources covering the hidden years.]

Entelis, John P., “Religion and politics in Algeria : Conflict or consensus?” Islam & Christian-Muslim Relations, 12.4, Routledge, 2001, pp.417-434.

Gairdner, W.H.T., The Rebuke of Islam, London, United Council for Missionary Education, 5th Edition, 1920.

[Previously entitled The Reproach of Islam. An attempt from a Christian perspective to compare the social impact of Christianity and Islam. Available online]

Gairdner, W.H.T., D.M. Thornton, A Study in Missionary Ideals and Methods, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1908.

[This book contains material about the Copts.]

Glick, Thomas F., Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages, The Library Of Iberian Resources Online,

Griffith, Sidney H., The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque: Christians and Muslims in the World of Islam, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 2008.

[Much of this book deals with the Eastern churches, but there is a section on the Coptic church.]

Hasan, Sana S., Christians versus Muslims in Modern Egypt: The Century-long Struggle for Coptic Equality, Oxford University Press, 2003.

Kiser, John W. The Monks of Tibhirine: Faith, Love, and Terror in Algeria, St Martin’s Press, 1982.

Lane, Edward William, The Manners & Customs of the Modern Egyptians, 1st edition 1836, Cosimo classics 2005.

[The author achieved a rare degree of identification with Arab culture during the age of empire. The appendix gives a brief account of the Copts in Egypt. Available online at:]

Maameri, Fatima, “Ottoman Algeria in Western Diplomatic history with Particular Emphasis on Relations with the United States of America, 1776-1816”, Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Letters and Languages, Dept of Languages, University Mentouri, Constantine, in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctorat d’etat.

[An example of how many North Africans see Muslim-Christian relations against the background of the reconquista. The thesis is available online at: ]

Mainardus, Otto F.A., Christians in Egypt: Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant Communities Past and Present, Cairo, American University in Cairo Press, 2006.

McGee, Martin, OSB, Christian Martyrs for a Muslim People. New York/Mahwah, NJ: Paulist, 2008.

Makari, Peter E., Conflict and Cooperation: Christian-Muslim Relations in Contemporary Egypt, New York, Syracuse University Press, 2007.

Merad, Ali, Christian Hermit in an Islamic World: A Muslim’s View of Charles de Foucauld, Paulist Press, 1999.

Metcalfe, Alexander, “The Muslims of Sicily under Christian Rule,” in The Society of Norman Italy. The Medieval Mediterranean. People, Economies and Cultures, 400-1500, Brill, Leiden, pp. 289-318. Available at:

Metcalfe, Alexander, Muslims and Christians in Norman Sicily: Arabic speakers and the End of Islam, Oxford, RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

Preminger, Marion Mill, The Sands of Tamanrasset: The Story of Charles de Foucauld, New York, Hawthorn, 1961.

Sharkey, Heather J., American Evangelicals in Egypt: Missionary Encounters in an Age of Empire, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2008.

Stephanous, Andrea Zaki, Political Islam, Citizenship, and Minorities: The Future of Arab Christians in the Islamic Middle East,University Press of America, 2010.

[Again, this book has a section on the way the Coptic church has related to the Muslim state and compares the situation in Egypt to that in Lebanon.]

Virtue, David W., A Vision of Hope, Paternoster/Regnum, UK. 

[A biography of the Rev Dr Samuel Habib, an Egyptian Presbyterian minister who helped establish the Coptic Evangelical Organization for Social Services.]

Wellman, David Joseph, Sustainable Diplomacy: Ecology, Religion and Ethics in Muslim-Christian Relations, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

[This book is set in the context of modern Morocco-Spanish relations.]

Windler, Christian, “Diplomatic History as a Field for Cultural Analysis: Muslim-Christian Relations in Tunis, 1700-1840”, The Historical Journal, Vol. 44, No. 1, March 2001, pp.79-106.

Zebiri, Kate, “Relations between Muslims and Non-Muslims in the thought of Western-educated intellectuals”, Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 6 (2), 1995, pp. 255-277.

Zwemer, Samuel Marinus, Raymond Lull, First Missionary to the Moslems, New York and London, Funk & Wagnalls Co., 1902, reprinted by Diggory Press, 2006.

[Raymond Lull was the first missionary to North Africa after the Muslim conquest.]