For starters:

Peters, R. , Crime and Punishment in Islamic Law (Cambridge: 2005): This is the best place to start – a superb overview.

Kurzman, C., Liberal Islam (Oxford: 1998), pp. 3-26 on different visions of Shariah.

Rippin, A., Muslims: Their Beliefs and Practices, (various editions – look for second or third) ,  chapter 6 on ‘Legal developments’: An accessible primary source in English translation

Mālik ibn Anas (died 795 AD),  Al-Muwatta

Going deeper:

Ali, K., Sexual Ethics and Islam:  Feminist reflections on Qur’an, Hadith and Jurisprudence, (Oxford: Oneworld, 2006).

Doi, A.R.I., Sharī‘ah: The Islamic Law, (London: Ta Ha Publishers, 1984): A Nigerian’s account of the basis of Islamic law, with chapters detailing rulings on many aspects of life.

Haddad, Y. and Stowasser, B. (eds.), Islamic Law and the Challenges of Modernity (Lanham, MD, 2004): Has a useful introduction to papers that explore gender issues and how Islamic law functions in several Middle Eastern contexts.

Hallaq, W.B., A History of Islamic Legal Theories, (Cambridge: CUP, 1997)

Kamali, M., Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence (Cambridge, 2000 revised edn.): A more detailed account of the theoretical foundations of Islamic law.

Al-Qaradawi, Y., The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam, (American Trust Publications, undated): A guide to living by a very influential writer.

Al-Sadr, M.B., Lessons in Islamic Jurisprudence, tr. R. Mottahedeh (Oxford 2003): A Shi’ite perspective